Topic - • Gases

ClosedManometer-640.gif
This illustration shows the setup of a closed manometer.

OpenManometerA-640.gif
This illustration shows the setup of an open manometer.

OpenManometerB-640.gif
This illustration shows the data for an open manometer where the gas pressure is less than the atmospheric pressure.
OpenManometerC-640.gif
This illustration shows the data for an open manometer where the gas pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure.
Different_Speeds_of_Gases-640.gif
This diagram shows the position of the most probable speed, the average speed, and the root mean square speed on the graph of the distribution of molecular speeds of gas molecules.
GasMotion-640.gif
This illustration shows a demonstration of the fact that gas molecules travel at high speeds in a straight line.
MolecularSpeed_vs_MM-640.gif
This diagram shows the distribution of molecular speeds for different gases at a given temperature.
MolecularSpeed_vs_Temp-640.gif
This diagram shows how the distribution of the molecular speeds of oxygen gas varies with temperature.
MolecularDistribution.html or MolecularDistribution.exe
This animation shows the generation of a
molecular speed distribution graph using metal vapor.

Avogadro'sLaw.html or Avogadro'sLaw.exe
This animation shows how the volume of a gas changes with the number of moles of gas at constant temperature and pressure.
BoylesLaw.html or Boyle'sLaw.exe
This animation shows how the pressure of a gas changes with the volume of gas at constant temperature and moles.
CharlesLaw.html or CharlesLaw.exe
This animation shows how the volume of a gas changes with the temperature of gas at constant pressure and moles.
Gay-Lussac'sLaw.html or Gay-Lussac'sLaw.exe
This animation shows how the pressure of a gas changes with the temperature of gas at constant volume and moles.
AtmosphericPressure.html or AtmosphericPressure.exe
This animation shows how atmospheric pressure is exerted on a person and how it is calculated.
Cyrophorus.html or Cyrophorus.exe
An animation showing a sealed container of water and Cyrophorus inserted into liquid nitrogen to cool. This shows how the higher energy water molecules escape from the liquid water and are condensed in the part of the tube immersed in the liquid nitrogen. This lowers the average kinetic energy and temperature of the remaining liquid water. Eventually the temperature of the water decreases enough to freeze.
thumbnail
Bromine.html or Bromine.exe
This animation shows sealed vials of Bromine, one under low pressure & one at atmospheric pressure, which are put into liquid nitrogen to cool. The molecules of bromine in the lower pressure tube condense to the solid faster because there are fewer molecules of air to collide with due to the low pressure. The bromine molecules travel further between collisions and reach the cold surface faster and condense faster.
thumbnail
MolecularMotion.html or MolecularMotion.exe
An animation that shows orange and green beads inside a sealed vial of liquid mercury. When the liquid mercury is heated and the atoms of mercury vapor strike the colored beads, it bounces them around. This illustrates collisions with gas phase particles.
thumbnail
 
Topic - • Bonding
NonpolarCovalentBonding.html or NonpolarCovalentBonding.exe
This animation shows the sharing of electrons and the formation of a nonpolar covalent bond.
IonicBonding.html or IonicBonding.exe
This animation shows the transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal to form ions and the structure of an ionic crystal.
PolarBonding.html or PolarBonding.exe
This animation shows the formation of polar
covalent bonds. Two molecules with different geometries are shown.

H2O_bond.jpg
This diagram shows the hydrogen bonding in water.
HI_bond.jpg
This diagram shows the dipole force in HI.
LondonDispersionForce_I2_bond.jpg
This diagram shows the London dispersion force in I2.
LondonDispersionForce.html (animation) or LondonDispersionForce_anim.exe
This animation shows the London dispersion force in I2.
p_sigma_bonding.jpg
This diagram shows the formation of sigma bonding molecular orbitals.
p_pi_bonding.jpg
This diagram shows the formation of pi bonding molecular orbitals.
Molecular_1s_orbitals-1.jpg
This diagram shows the formation of bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals from s type atomic orbitals.
Molecular_1s_orbitals-2.jpg
This diagram shows the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals of diatomic hydrogen.
Hetero-Molecular_orbitals.jpg
This diagram shows the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals of diatomic hydrogen fluoride.
BondingEnergy.gif
This diagram shows the relative energy of the bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.
Diatomic-Molecular_orbitals-1.gif
This diagram shows the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals of Period 2 diatomic nonmetallic elements.
Diatomic-Molecular_orbitals-2.gif
This diagram shows the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals of Period 2 diatomic metallic elements.
Diatomic-Molecular_orbitals-3.gif
This diagram shows the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals of Period 2 diatomic nonmetallic elements.
Bonding_Orbital.gif
This diagram shows the combination of electron probabilities in a bonding molecular orbital.
Antibonding_Orbital.gif
This diagram shows the combination of electron probabilities in a bonding molecular orbital.
Back to TOP - Menu < Previous Next >