Students will examine evidence that casts light on an important event in human history: the replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans 30,000 years ago in Europe. Neanderthals (Homoneanderthalensis, our sister species) had survived in the harsh and changing climate of Ice Age Europe for more than 200,000 years, but did not survive their encounter with our species, Homosapiens, who had recently migrated north from Africa. In order to understand what happened scientists are comparing Neanderthal and human DNA, tools and bones. Did humans kill Neanderthals? Did humans have more sophisticated tools, ideas and language that enabled them out-compete Neanderthals? Did climate change push Neanderthals to extinction or do their genes still live within us? Listen to the evidence, examine their tools and bones… and judge for yourself!